Common name: PQQ(Pyrroloquinoline Quinone) disodium salt
Synonyms: PYRROLOQUINOLINE QUINONE DISODIUM SALT
Pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium
Molecular Formula: C14H6N2Na2O8
Molecular Weight: 376.188
Specification: 99%(Reddish Brown Powder)
Test method: HPLC
Product Main Quality Items：
Reddish Brown Powder
Contents(Calculated on dry basis by HPLC)
Storage: Store in cool and dry place and keep away from strong direct light and heat
Shelf Life: Two years when properly stored
Applications and Health Benefits:
What is PQQ(Pyrroloquinoline Quinone) disodium salt?
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was first isolated in 1979 when it was discovered to be as a cofactor for enzymatic reactions in bacteria.
A “cofactor” just means that it helps enzymes accomplish their jobs. There is a class of these cofactor molecules that transfer electrons, which is important for our mitochondria to produce energy. Most importantly, PQQ stimulates "mitochondrial biogenesis" — the making of new mitochondria. Until recently, scientists only thought that strict caloric restriction, exercise, and certain medications could do that.
As you get older, your mitochondria become worn down, causing your cells to age more rapidly. This deterioration can lead to age-related diseases. Researchers have discovered that individuals over the age of 70 have 15 times more mitochondrial damage than individuals in their 40s.
Health Benefits of PQQ(Pyrroloquinoline Quinone) disodium salt
1. PQQ Creates New Mitochondria: The Role of PGC-1a.
Compounds reported to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis are linked to many health benefits such as increased longevity, improved energy utilization, and protection from free radicals.
Mice and rats fed diets lacking in pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) have reduced mitochondrial content. The creation of new mitochondria by PQQ occurs through the activation of CREB and PGC-1alpha, pathways known to increase mitochondrial biogenesis.
As a result of the activation of the PGC-1alpha pathway, PQQ increased NRiF-1 and NRF-2, proteins (transcription factors) that protect us more free radicals by increasing our internal antioxidant production. They also protect us from toxins, UV, etc.
PGC-1a is a “master regulator” that directly stimulates genes that promote mitochondrial and cellular respiration, growth, and proliferation.
By increasing cellular metabolism it favorably affects blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglyceride breakdown, and the onset of obesity.
2. Protects Brain Health
Not too long ago, scientists widely believed that damaged neurons (nerve cells) could not repair themselves. Eventually, researchers discovered the nerve growth factor (NGF) — a small protein that protects existing neurons and encourages new ones to grow.
It turns out the molecule PQQ stimulates normal levels of nerve growth factor production, which, in turn, protects nerve cells and supports healthy nerve cell growth.
In one preliminary study, PQQ protected brain cells against damage when exposed to toxins. In other words, PQQ may be "neuroprotective" which means it helps protect healthy brain cells.
3. PQQ Improves Memory and Reasoning: The Role of CREB
PQQ triggers the DNA reading protein CREB, which plays a key role in growth and gene expression. CREB also stimulates the growth of new mitochondria and increases BDNF.
It’s no wonder then that PQQ reverses cognitive impairment caused by chronic oxidative stress in animal models and improves performance on memory tests.
4. PQQ Is Neuroprotective Against Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Cognitive Injuries
PQQ is a neuroprotective compound that protects memory and cognition in aging animals and humans, as shown in studies.
PQQ increases a protein (DJ-1) that is important to brain health and function. This protein, which increases cell function and survival by combating intensive oxidative stress, is likely important to brain health and function.
DJ-1 mutations have been conclusively linked to the onset of rare inherited forms of Parkinson’s disease and other neurological disorders.
PQQ suppresses reactive nitrogen species (iNOS causes this), which spikes in strokes and brain injuries. In this manner, it provides protection against neuro-related injuries .
In animal models, administration of PQQ immediately prior to induction of stroke significantly reduced the size of the damaged brain area.
PQQ also protects neurons by preventing the long-term overactivation of the NMDA receptors, which results in excitotoxicity. Long-term, overstimulation of neurons is associated with many neurodegenerative diseases and seizures.
It also protects the brain against neurotoxicity induced by other powerful toxins, including mercury and oxidopamine, toxins that are suspected to cause Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, respectively.
PQQ also prevents aggregation of alpha-synuclein and amyloid-beta, proteins associated with Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, respectively.
It also protects nerve cells from the toxic effects of the proteins that are already there.
5. PQQ Decreases Insulin Resistance
PQQ alleviates fat-induced insulin resistance by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle cells, similar to exercise.
PQQ also has some pro-oxidant potential by increasing hydrogen peroxide, but by doing this, it can inhibit an enzyme called PTP1B, which increases insulin sensitivity.
Mice lacking the capability of making this protein showed resistance to obesity and were more insulin sensitive.